Study of different steering feedback models influence during remote driving’
Steering feedback is one essential aspect to provide real world information, and can influence driving performance during remote driving. In this work, the classical feedback models based on physical characteristics (Physical Model) and modular characteristics (Modular Model) of the steering system are constructed separately, and the influences of it on the remote drivers are studied. Objective and subjective measurement methods are separately used for evaluating the performance of the feedback models. In the subjective assessment, a multi-level assessment method is used for studying the influence of steering models on driver’s intuitive feeling. In the objective assessment, lane following accuracy, steering reversal rates, vehicle speed, time consumption, and throttle engagement are studied for different feedback models and scenarios. Moreover, the human biological information of electroencephalogram and heart rate variability are measured for studying the workload differences. The results showed that the physical model gave drivers a better steering characteristic feel and confidence in remote driving while the modular model could provide better real world feel. Returnability was an important parameter in remote driving, and the level of feedback force and returnability speed could be lower in remote driving compared to real car driving. It was also found that drivers had a higher workload in remote driving compared to real car driving.